Daily Current Affairs 2021 The extreme depths of the oceans measured with precision | Daily Current Affairs 2021

The extreme depths of the oceans measured with precision

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The Five Deeps Expedition has recently provided data on the deepest points of five oceans in the world.

They are the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic and the Southern Oceans.

Key Points:

The Five Deeps Expedition was the first to reach the deepest point in each of the Earth’s five oceans. They are:

  1. The Puerto Rico Trench in the Atlantic
  2. South Sandwich Trench in the Southern Ocean also called the Antarctic Ocean.
  3. Java Trench in the Indian Ocean
  4. Challenger Deep in the Pacific
  5. Molloy Deep in the Arctic
  • The expedition covered 47,000 nautical miles / 87,000 km in 10 months.
  • The submersible Limiting Factor completed 39 dives.
  • Around 50 scientific lander deployments were undertaken alongside the submersible dives.
  • No human had previously ever been to the bottom of the Java, Puerto Rico* or South Sandwich trenches.
  • No one had ever been to the bottom of Molloy Deep
  • No manned submersible had ever been to Challenger Deep more than once.
  • No person had ever been to the summit of Mount Everest and also been to the bottom of the ocean at Challenger Deep, which occurred on this expedition.
  • The expedition has found that some major animals can survive in great depths such as:

Jelly fish at 10,000 metres

Squid at 6,500 metres

Octopus at 2,000 metres

Though some of the above findings were already made, the expedition confirmed them, found new lives, corrected erratic data and also updated some.

Objective:

  • The Five Deeps Expedition’s primary objective was to dive to the deepest point in each of the five oceans.

About the Expedition:

  • It is the brainchild of Explorer Victor Vescovo.
  • He has completed the “Explorers Grand Slam”.
  • The Five Deeps Expedition was organized by a company called Caladan Oceanic LLC.
  • It was founded by Victor himself.
  • The company aims to support expeditions that increase ocean understanding.

Note: In 2019, Victor became the first person to reach the bottom of all oceans and top of all world continents.

All new bathymetries (depth data) are contained in an article published in the Geoscience Data Journal.

All this information is transmitted to the Nippon Foundation-GEBCO Seabed 2030 project, which aims to compile, from various data sources, a map of ocean depths by the end of the decade.

Significance:

  • Better seabed maps are needed for a multitude of reasons.
  • They are essential for navigation, of course, and for laying submarine cables and pipelines.
  • They are also important for the management and conservation of fisheries, as it is around seamounts that wildlife tends to congregate. Each seamount is a hotbed of biodiversity.
  • In addition, the rugged seabed influences the behavior of ocean currents and vertical water mixing. This is the information needed to improve models that predict future climate change – because it is the oceans that play a central role in moving heat around the planet.
  • And if you want to understand precisely how the sea level will rise in different parts of the world, good seabed maps are a must.
  • Such projects are also very important as 80% of world oceans are still unexplored. Countries are aggressively competing with each other to take hold of unexplored resources.
  • For example, China is one of them who is aggressively exploring the South China Sea defying International Sea laws.

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