International Day of World’s Indigenous Peoples 2021: International Day of the World’s Indigenous Peoples is observed on August 9 every year across the world.
- This day is also known as World Tribal Day.
- This day is observed to raise awareness and protect the rights of the world’s indigenous population.
- This event also recognizes the achievements and contributions that indigenous people make to improve world issues such as environmental protection.
- On December 23, 1994, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) decided that that the International Day of the World’s Indigenous People will be observed every year on August 9.
- On the same date in 1982, the UN Working Group on Indigenous Populations (WGIP) of the Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights had convened its first meeting in Geneva, Switzerland.
- The main objective of the First International Decade was to solidify international cooperation to solve problems in the areas, including human rights, the environment, development, education, health culture, economic and social development, the environment, and human rights.
- The focus is mostly to strengthen international cooperation on solving problems of the indigenous population globally.
- The day serves as a reminder to all of us that we need to do much more than what we have done so far for indigenous people.
- On this day, UNESCO considers the multiple challenges indigenous people face for their sustainability.
- Worldwide, people are encouraged to spread the United Nations’ message of protection and promotion of the rights of indigenous people.
The theme of 2021:
- The theme for this year’s International Day of Indigenous Peoples is “Leaving no one behind: Indigenous peoples and the call for a new social contract”.
- The United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) organized a virtual commemoration for speakers.
- The event featured an interactive session with two speakers.
- The discussion focused on the distinct elements which should be considered while building and redesigning a fresh social contract inclusive of indigenous peoples.
Facts About indigenous people:
- As per an estimate by the United Nations, nearly 476 million indigenous people live in 90 countries across the world.
- They account for 6.2 percent of the world’s total population.
- They are spread across 90 countries and representing 5,000 different cultures.
Indigenous Tribes in India:
- The central tribal belt which comprises the Northeastern states of India claims to have the maximum concentration of indigenous population. Here are a few of them.
Great Andamanese Tribes:
- This group occupies the regions of Strait Island and some parts of Rutland Island.
- It consists of Onge, Jarawa, Jangil, and Sentinelese, who are the first inhabitants of the island and paint their faces, bodies with clay.
- These tribes are into chanting while they work and are fond of communicating with big, colourful pigeons in the forest.
The Jarawa Tribe:
- The Jarava Tribe lives in the pristine islands of Andaman and Nicobar.
- It is one of the oldest tribes in India. With a scanty population of almost 420, they are almost on the verge of extinction.
- They live along the western coast of the south and the middle Andaman Islands.
- Mostly hunters and gatherers, they are dependent on terrestrial and aquatic resources.
- They had inhabited the islands almost 60,000 years ago.
- Till 2013, Bhils were the largest tribal group in India, known to have a rich, distinctive culture.
- They are an Indo-Aryan speaking ethnic group in Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra; the western Deccan region.
- Mostly spotted in Bastar highland regions of Southern Chhattisgarh, there are three important Gond tribes- Muria, the Bisonhorn Maria, and the Hill Maria.
- Raj Gond is known to be the most developed in the Gond tribes.
- The Santhal tribes are the major tribes of West Bengal and are mostly seen in the districts of Bankura and Purulia.
- They are also widely seen in parts of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, and Assam.
- The Santhals are largely dependent on agriculture and livestock; further, they are well versed in the art of hunting.