Integrated Defended Localities: The Army has significantly augmented its firepower along the 1,300-km Line of Actual Control (LAC) in the eastern sector while also beefing up overall defences in the region, especially in the Tawang sector, by integrating various services in real-time through automation.
- This includes upgraded L-70 air defence guns, M777 Ultra Light Howitzers, and automated and electronic fusion of Bofors and other artillery guns deployed along the LAC.
- The Army has set up “integrated defended localities” at several locations along the LAC.
- These integrate various arms of the Army such as infantry, engineers, artillery, air defence, aviation and also the fighter aircraft of the Air Force, to respond to any threat in real time and bring in maximum firepower.
- There were primarily two approaches for the enemy to move towards Tawang, 35 km from the LAC.
- One is the valley after the ridgeline of the LAC and the other is the road from Bumla to Tawang for a stretch of 35 km.
- The M-777 Ultra-Light Howitzers inducted in November 2018 have been deployed all along the LAC.
- The M777 is a 155-mm, 39-calibre towed artillery gun and weighs just four tonnes.
- The M777 had given significant flexibility in employment options for long range fire power.
About Line of Actual Control (LAC):
- The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is the effective border between India and China.
- It is the demarcation that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory.
- The LAC is 4,057-km long and it is divided into 3 sectors which are:-
- The eastern sector which spans Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim.
- The middle sector in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh.
- The western sector in Ladakh and Kashmir.
Reason for Disputes:
- The reason for the continuous disputes between china and India are that for India, the LAC is 3,488 km long, however for China; it is just 2,000 km long.
- The major disagreements between India and China are over the LAC in the Western sectors (Ladakh).
- There is no clarification on the LAC boundary.
Agreements between China and India on boundary issues:
- China and India have signed 4 agreements on this boundary issue. These agreements were signed in September 1993, November 1996, April 2005 and October 2013.
- Indian & Chinese bilateral talks on border disputes are held on the basis of these four agreements.
- However, these agreements are considered to be flawed and are unable to resolve the boundary issue between the countries.
Difference between LAC & LOC:
- The LAC is the Line of Actual Control between India and China where as LOC is the Line of Control between India & Pakistan.
- The LAC is not located in the map of both the countries and there is no agreements regarding this where as the LOC is located on the map of both the countries and is backed by the Shimla Agreement.