World Biofuel Day: World Biofuel Day is observed on August 10 every year.
- The day is celebrated to raise awareness about the importance of non-fossil fuels as an alternative to conventional fossil fuels and highlight the various efforts made by Government in the biofuel sector.
- The development of biofuels is in sync with schemes such as Swach Bharat Abhiyan and Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan.
- World Biofuel Day was first observed by the Ministry of Petroleum and Gas in August 2015.
Theme of 2021:
- The theme of 2021 has been announced to be “promotion of biofuels for a better environment”.
- The focus will be squarely on using biofuels in an optimum manner while ensuring that their adverse effects on the environment are kept at a minimum.
- Raising awareness of the availability of biofuels as effective replacements for traditional fuels will also be another important objective.
- In June 2021, PM Modi joined the World Environment Day event via video conferencing and declared “biofuels for a better environment” as the theme for this year’s World Environment Day.
- In India, it is being observed by the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas since 2015.
- The day honours the research experiments by Sir Rudolf Diesel (inventor of the diesel engine).
- It was just one day before, on August 9 in 1893, he ran an engine with peanut oil.
- His experiments predicted that vegetable oil would replace fossil fuels in the subsequent century to fuel various mechanical engines.
- To commemorate this achievement, the date was chosen to observe World Biofuel Day.
What is Biofuel?
- Biofuels are environmentally friendly fuels whose use would go a long way in reducing carbon emissions.
- They are created through renewable biomass resources (plant, or algae material, or animal waste) and therefore make a strong case for sustainable development.
- They are renewable, biodegradable, and sustainable sources of energy.
- As such biofuels will help meet the energy requirements of the 21st-century world without damaging the environment in the process.
- Broadly Biofuels are of two types-
- Primary Biofuels: The organic materials which are used in an unprocessed form such as fuelwood, wood chips and pellets, primarily for heating, cooking, electricity production.
- Secondary Biofuels: The materials which result from the processing of biomass such as liquid fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel.
- Biofuels are generally classified into three categories. They are
- First-generation biofuels – First-generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats using conventional technology. Common first-generation biofuels include Bioalcohols, Biodiesel, Vegetable oil, Bioethers, Biogas.
- Second-generation biofuels – These are produced from non-food crops, such as cellulosic biofuels and waste biomass (stalks of wheat and corn, and wood). Examples include advanced biofuels like biohydrogen, bioethanol.
- Third-generation biofuels – These are produced from microorganisms like algae.
Benefits of Biofuel:
- Cleaner environment
- Employment generation
- Reduction of import dependence
- Additional income to farmers