2021 Nobel Prize in Medicine Awarded to Two American Scientists | Daily Current Affairs 2021
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2021 Nobel Prize in Medicine Awarded to Two American Scientists

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2021: Two American scientists David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian recently won the 2021 Nobel Prize for Medicine.

Highlights:

  • They received the Nobel Prize for the discovery of receptors in the skin that sense temperature and touch and could pave the way for new pain-killers.
  • These breakthrough discoveries explains  how our nervous system senses heat, cold, and mechanical stimuli that allows us to perceive and adapt to the world around us.
  • This knowledge is being used to develop treatments for a wide range of disease conditions, including chronic pain.

About David Julius:

  • New York-born David Julius, 65, is a Professor at University of California, San Francisco (UCFS), after earlier work at Columbia University, in New York.
  • He utilized capsaicin, a pungent compound from chili peppers that induces a burning sensation, to identify a sensor in the nerve endings of the skin that responds to heat.
  • He is also the recipient of 2010 Shaw Prize in Life Science and Medicine and the Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences.

About Ardem Patapoutian:

  • Ardem Patapoutian, who was born in 1967 to Armenian parents in Lebanon is a professor at Scripps Research, La Jolla, California.
  • He used pressure-sensitive cells to discover a novel class of sensors that respond to mechanical stimuli in the skin and internal organs.

Additional Info:

  • As of 2021, 112 Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine have been awarded to 224 laureates, 212 men and 12 women. The first one was awarded in 1901 to the German physiologist Emil von Behring, for his work on serum therapy and the development of a vaccine against diphtheria.
  • The first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Gerty Cori, received it in 1947 for her role in elucidating the metabolism of glucose, important in many aspects of medicine, including treatment of diabetes.

About Nobel Prize:

  • The Nobel Prize is presented annually on the anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death, 10 December.
  • The Nobel Prize started in 1901.
  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded yearly by the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute for outstanding discoveries in physiology or medicine.
  • The Nobel Prize is not a single prize, but five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel’s 1895 will.
  • They are awarded “to those who, during the preceding year, have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind”.
  • Nobel Prizes are awarded in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace.
  • The prize consists of a medal along with a diploma and a certificate for the monetary award.
  • The prestigious award comes with a gold medal and 10 million Swedish kronor (over $1.14 million).
  • The front side of the medal displays the same profile of Alfred Nobel depicted on the medals for Physics, Chemistry, and Literature; the reverse side is unique to this medal.

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